internet of things (IoT)

The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

thing in the internet of things can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address and is able to transfer data over a network.

Increasingly, organizations in a variety of industries are using IoT to operate more efficiently, better understand customers to deliver enhanced customer service, improve decision-making and increase the value of the business.

How IoT works

An IoT ecosystem consists of web-enabled smart devices that use embedded systems, such as processors, sensors and communication hardware, to collect, send and act on data they acquire from their environments. IoT devices share the sensor data they collect by connecting to an IoT gateway or other edge device where data is either sent to the cloud to be analyzed or analyzed locally. Sometimes, these devices communicate with other related devices and act on the information they get from one another. The devices do most of the work without human intervention, although people can interact with the devices -- for instance, to set them up, give them instructions or access the data.

The connectivity, networking and communication protocols used with these web-enabled devices largely depend on the specific IoT applications deployed.

IoT can also make use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to aid in making data collecting processes easier and more dynamic.

IoT system
An example of how an IoT system works from collecting data to taking action

Why IoT is important

The internet of things helps people live and work smarter, as well as gain complete control over their lives. In addition to offering smart devices to automate homes, IoT is essential to business. IoT provides businesses with a real-time look into how their systems really work, delivering insights into everything from the performance of machines to supply chain and logistics operations.

IoT enables companies to automate processes and reduce labor costs. It also cuts down on waste and improves service delivery, making it less expensive to manufacture and deliver goods, as well as offering transparency into customer transactions.

As such, IoT is one of the most important technologies of everyday life, and it will continue to pick up steam as more businesses realize the potential of connected devices to keep them competitive.

IoT benefits to organizations

The internet of things offers several benefits to organizations. Some benefits are industry-specific, and some are applicable across multiple industries. Some of the common benefits of IoT enable businesses to:

  • monitor their overall business processes;
  • improve the customer experience (CX);
  • save time and money;
  • enhance employee productivity;
  • integrate and adapt business models;
  • make better business decisions; and
  • generate more revenue.

IoT encourages companies to rethink the ways they approach their businesses and gives them the tools to improve their business strategies.

Generally, IoT is most abundant in manufacturing, transportation and utility organizations, making use of sensors and other IoT devices; however, it has also found use cases for organizations within the agriculture, infrastructure and home automation industries, leading some organizations toward digital transformation.

IoT can benefit farmers in agriculture by making their job easier. Sensors can collect data on rainfall, humidity, temperature and soil content, as well as other factors, that would help automate farming techniques.

The ability to monitor operations surrounding infrastructure is also a factor that IoT can help with. Sensors, for example, could be used to monitor events or changes within structural buildings, bridges and other infrastructure. This brings benefits with it, such as cost saving, saved time, quality-of-life workflow changes and paperless workflow.

A home automation business can utilize IoT to monitor and manipulate mechanical and electrical systems in a building. On a broader scale, smart cities can help citizens reduce waste and energy consumption.

IoT touches every industry, including businesses within healthcare, finance, retail and manufacturing.

Pros and cons of IoT

Some of the advantages of IoT include the following:

  • ability to access information from anywhere at any time on any device;
  • improved communication between connected electronic devices;
  • transferring data packets over a connected network saving time and money; and
  • automating tasks helping to improve the quality of a business's services and reducing the need for human intervention.

Some disadvantages of IoT include the following:

  • As the number of connected devices increases and more information is shared between devices, the potential that a hacker could steal confidential information also increases.
  • Enterprises may eventually have to deal with massive numbers -- maybe even millions -- of IoT devices, and collecting and managing the data from all those devices will be challenging.
  • If there's a bug in the system, it's likely that every connected device will become corrupted.
  • Since there's no international standard of compatibility for IoT, it's difficult for devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.

IoT standards and frameworks

There are several emerging IoT standards, including the following:

  • IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) is an open standard defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The 6LoWPAN standard enables any low-power radio to communicate to the internet, including 804.15.4, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Z-Wave (for home automation).
  • ZigBee is a low-power, low-data rate wireless network used mainly in industrial settings. ZigBee is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 standard. The ZigBee Alliance created Dotdot, the universal language for IoT that enables smart objects to work securely on any network and understand each other.
  • LiteOS is a Unix-like operating system (OS) for wireless sensor networks. LiteOS supports smartphones, wearables, intelligent manufacturing applications, smart homes and the internet of vehicles (IoV). The OS also serves as a smart device development platform.
  • OneM2M is a machine-to-machine service layer that can be embedded in software and hardware to connect devices. The global standardization body, OneM2M, was created to develop reusable standards to enable IoT applications across different verticals to communicate.
  • Data Distribution Service (DDS) was developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) and is an IoT standard for real-time, scalable and high-performance M2M communication.
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open source published standard for asynchronous messaging by wire. AMQP enables encrypted and interoperable messaging between organizations and applications. The protocol is used in client-server messaging and in IoT device management.
  • Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a protocol designed by the IETF that specifies how low-power, compute-constrained devices can operate in the internet of things.
  • Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a protocol for WANs designed to support huge networks, such as smart cities, with millions of low-power devices.

IoT frameworks include the following:

  • Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT is a cloud computing platform for IoT released by Amazon. This framework is designed to enable smart devices to easily connect and securely interact with the AWS cloud and other connected devices.
  • Arm Mbed IoT is a platform to develop apps for IoT based on Arm microcontrollers. The goal of the Arm Mbed IoT platform is to provide a scalable, connected and secure environment for IoT devices by integrating Mbed tools and services.
  • Microsoft's Azure IoT Suite is a platform that consists of a set of services that enables users to interact with and receive data from their IoT devices, as well as perform various operations over data, such as multidimensional analysis, transformation and aggregation, and visualize those operations in a way that's suitable for business.
  • Google's Brillo/Weave is a platform for the rapid implementation of IoT applications. The platform consists of two main backbones: Brillo, an Android-based OS for the development of embedded low-power devices, and Weave, an IoT-oriented communication protocol that serves as the communication language between the device and the cloud.
  • Calvin is an open source IoT platform released by Ericsson designed for building and managing distributed applications that enable devices to talk to each other. Calvin includes a development framework for application developers, as well as a runtime environment for handling the running application.

Consumer and enterprise IoT applications

There are numerous real-world applications of the internet of things, ranging from consumer IoT and enterprise IoT to manufacturing and industrial IoT (IIoT). IoT applications span numerous verticals, including automotive, telecom and energy.

In the consumer segment, for example, smart homes that are equipped with smart thermostats, smart appliances and connected heating, lighting and electronic devices can be controlled remotely via computers and smartphones.

Wearable devices with sensors and software can collect and analyze user data, sending messages to other technologies about the users with the aim of making users' lives easier and more comfortable. Wearable devices are also used for public safety -- for example, improving first responders' response times during emergencies by providing optimized routes to a location or by tracking construction workers' or firefighters' vital signs at life-threatening sites.

In healthcare, IoT offers many benefits, including the ability to monitor patients more closely using an analysis of the data that's generated. Hospitals often use IoT systems to complete tasks such as inventory management for both pharmaceuticals and medical instruments.

Smart buildings can, for instance, reduce energy costs using sensors that detect how many occupants are in a room. The temperature can adjust automatically -- for example, turning the air conditioner on if sensors detect a conference room is full or turning the heat down if everyone in the office has gone home.

In agriculture, IoT-based smart farming systems can help monitor, for instance, light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture of crop fields using connected sensors. IoT is also instrumental in automating irrigation systems.

In a smart city, IoT sensors and deployments, such as smart streetlights and smart meters, can help alleviate traffic, conserve energy, monitor and address environmental concerns, and improve sanitation.

IoT security and privacy issues

The internet of things connects billions of devices to the internet and involves the use of billions of data points, all of which need to be secured. Due to its expanded attack surface, IoT security and IoT privacy are cited as major concerns.

In 2016, one of the most notorious recent IoT attacks was Mirai, a botnet that infiltrated domain name server provider Dyn and took down many websites for an extended period of time in one of the biggest distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks ever seen. Attackers gained access to the network by exploiting poorly secured IoT devices.

Because IoT devices are closely connected, all a hacker has to do is exploit one vulnerability to manipulate all the data, rendering it unusable. Manufacturers that don't update their devices regularly -- or at all -- leave them vulnerable to cybercriminals.

Additionally, connected devices often ask users to input their personal information, including names, ages, addresses, phone numbers and even social media accounts -- information that's invaluable to hackers.

Hackers aren't the only threat to the internet of things; privacy is another major concern for IoT users. For instance, companies that make and distribute consumer IoT devices could use those devices to obtain and sell users' personal data.

Beyond leaking personal data, IoT poses a risk to critical infrastructure, including electricity, transportation and financial services.

History of IoT

Kevin Ashton, co-founder of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), first mentioned the internet of things in a presentation he made to Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999. Wanting to bring radio frequency ID (RFID) to the attention of P&G's senior management, Ashton called his presentation "Internet of Things" to incorporate the cool new trend of 1999: the internet. MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld's book, When Things Start to Think, also appeared in 1999. It didn't use the exact term but provided a clear vision of where IoT was headed.

IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMSes), microservices and the internet. The convergence has helped tear down the silos between operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT), enabling unstructured machine-generated data to be analyzed for insights to drive improvements.

Although Ashton's was the first mention of the internet of things, the idea of connected devices has been around since the 1970s, under the monikers embedded internet and pervasive computing.

The first internet appliance, for example, was a Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University in the early 1980s. Using the web, programmers could check the status of the machine and determine whether there would be a cold drink awaiting them, should they decide to make the trip to the machine.

IoT evolved from M2M communication, i.e., machines connecting to each other via a network without human interaction. M2M refers to connecting a device to the cloud, managing it and collecting data.

Taking M2M to the next level, IoT is a sensor network of billions of smart devices that connect people, systems and other applications to collect and share data. As its foundation, M2M offers the connectivity that enables IoT.

The internet of things is also a natural extension of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), a category of software application programs for process control, the gathering of data in real time from remote locations to control equipment and conditions. SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware gathers and feeds data into a computer that has SCADA software installed, where it is then processed and presented in a timely manner. The evolution of SCADA is such that late-generation SCADA systems developed into first-generation IoT systems.

The concept of the IoT ecosystem, however, didn't really come into its own until the middle of 2010 when, in part, the government of China said it would make IoT a strategic priority in its five-year plan.

This was last updated in February 2020

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The IoT is the best work of technology ever!!
@Thindross - really?

Even if we limit it to Information Technology there are far better examples. From Blackberry and smartphones in general to medical devices and assistive technologies.
With IoT we can digitalise whole world. A lot of things going to come in IoT domain.
Which IoT applications do you believe are most beneficial? Why?
IoT application in Building can dramatically decrease our electricity bill. 
IoT application in automotive maintenance system can confirm the person of the performance of his vehicle and he can get the car parts repair before it breaks.
Internet of things will be the new trend soon. All of the technology that we use will depend on the internet. Gustavo Woltmann
I am concerned about security. The society of IoT seems to have already begun without having solved the security problems. Some people will learn what the risk is and try to get the benefit of IoT, but, maybe some people can not neglect the risk and will not even try.
The IoT has worked in everything all over the world. It is sensitive to do any new thing connected with network.
There lots of talk on IoT...but I need to know how to start in the field of IoT in the world of industrialization.
Dear friends:
Quite interesting the issue. However I am getting started with much difficulties due to machine/software language and usage thereof.
I would like to continue this conversation toward learning more and more thereabout.
Jose Ramirez Carbonel
Awesome information given. Thank you so much sir!
Audio isn't too clear. Pity.
Excellent. Thank you.
Good opportunity for small business.
Very useful for an ICT student like me. Thanks for doing so.

Best for manufacturing business.
Learning about the IoT system has been really interesting and informative.
How sustanable
How sustainable is the IoT to developing countries where access to Internet and energy is absymal? How can the libraries  in those countries apply IoT to the services?
Presently, it is not sustainable because internet is expensive so the cost will be unbearable.
libraries in developing countries can only apply IoT to their services only if they can have access to regular, less, expensive and uninterruptible access
Wow, a really useful article. Here you can find top Internet of Things companies. Maybe it'll be helpful.
The global internet of things market is expected to witness a steady growth, expanding at a CAGR of over 19% from 2016 to 2023.
Hi .. very new to this environment, but actively involved in the Search and Rescue arena.
Can anyone steer me in the direction where IoT is being utilised to monitor and/or track trampers, skiers hunters etc from a personal safety perspective, and from an alert and rapid rescue perspective.   

A good read on IoT. Your point that IoT has a wide range of applications. But its application in the home and building automation has helped in making life simpler and more comfortable. The security issues, however, cannot be ignored. A good way to tackle security issues is to use devices and products that adhere to security protocols. Z-Wave, for example, has stronger security standards for devices receiving Z-Wave certification. The encryption standards for transmissions between two nodes are strong. And new pairing is mandatory for each device. A layer of authentication prevents hackers from gaining control over unsecured devices.

I have done my IoT training in onlineitguru but where can I found IoT jobs. IoT future is good or not  
Hi,For the first half of the Internet revolution, “digital” meant the web atleast for me. Email was there from the beginning too, but it’s never gotten much respect as a transformation medium. Then the mobile and the “there’s an app for that” movement arrived.Now we have chat bots and AI voice assistants collectively conversational interface wearable, (AR/VR), Internet of Things (IoT), digital layers to physical spaces, and even robots. i wonder what more i get to see in the coming future.
I also think that the IoT is the best work of technology. Thanks for sharing this great article. It's really interesting, I must read more about it. I think that future of IoT is full of successes. I think that these forecasts will be true. I must send this article to my team from software development company
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I think is useful information, but can they add a bit more so i can find out How much data is collected? --  What are the positives? --  Are there any negatives about IoT?
Reply if you know the answers!
Please and Thank you....=)
To us in Africa, Internet of Things is a new concept.  for Africans to be fully integrated, the internet backbone needs to be updated and also be stable.  Currently, there is no stable internet.
Is there any opinion or idea on how we integrate the IoT in teaching autism. In term of collecting data or else
I think IoT will also push for faster and accurate internet speeds.. 
In my opinion, the most beneficial and most critical area of application for IoT is the medical monitoring field. A crucial aspect to the extension of this area of application, is the need to enhance the security of data being broadcasted, firstly to protect the privacy of the "patient" being monitored, but also to protect that data from risk of manipulation and corruption, with generation of false information which could have deleterious, if not fatal, consequences for any diagnosis stemming from such patient data.
Good to know the about IoT & its benefits over the industries.
These are very useful notes.
Even if the business makes the Number or not, working with IOT gives kind of pleasure saying that I am with the race of techies. Also using these devices are going to give benefits to the individual or the company in many different ways.
One of the ways I feel is mostly people will feel like I got cheated, with digitization you will not feel so, its big thing to be happy.    
iot is better in the application of automatic switch off the power and electric things which  is connected to internet 

because we can save power world wide,,,,,,,,,,
Learning about the IoT system has been really interesting and informative.thanks for sharing this info Google photos login
Nice one. I really like it because I am a big fan of IoT, as well as of development in general. If you have something like  this article, or like IoT development please share with me 
Escalating radiation hazards are not mentioned (even as simple as brain tumors from cell phones).
very good article. by ready his article i learned more about IOT. i will also recommend to visit the link and learn more about IOT.
the prospect of IoT in African companies is a really interesting one...
using IOT we can interact with each and every electronic gadget out there and work smarter and live smarter.
 IOT applications are the new trend, the whole world is connected and extracting valuable data from IOT devices make life easier

The joint use of the blockchain and IoT is a handy way to go if you need to guarantee the security and invariance of the data in your project. Described below are some typical deployment scenarios for blockchain IoT applications , more here

I am happy to join this course (IOT) and have the knowledge of IOT and its benefits..
very informative I just learned new things about IOT please also check this url for more information related to IOT :
Really The IoT  is the best way of using Technology in this world
I like it.
the IOT which help humans in maintaining their health like fitbit to the temperature controller can be most useful. owing to the conditions, there is a need of IOT to help the human beings to fight the covid pandemic
I believe that IoT’s in the medical and agricultural fields are the most important. Specifically the health care industry. They’re monitoring people’s lives. And essentially determine whether they’re alive or not. Once someone’s heart rate drops too far, the machine sends a notification to the nurse and provides information about things occurring in the rooms.
Iot will be the new trend soon. All of the technology that we use will depend on the internet.  will change a day , IoT is future and we need to adobt it as soon as possible
I think the biggest thing that needs to be addressed is security, especially with the current internet.  Isn't IOT going to cause more headaches with having more security issues and I see this outweighing all benefits of IOT.  Where is security in fixing the major problem with the internet today?  Maybe a new internet?  But IOT should be lowest priority if everything is going to be compromised with very poor security.
The <a href=""> Internet of things is best. there is lots of things coming in Iot.

IoT is actaully applied everywhere and by its definition it helps person to work well
Great Post, IoT indeed has changed the world tech in a lot of ways, IoT enabled solutions are now available in various sectors
At Origami Studios, we have a history of dealing with clients from various niches. Moreover, nor that we only focus on building new solutions or apps but we have developed apps that were half-baked by its previous developers and due to the concerns of the client, they lacked the client’s need. We treat each query as our own and build apps that are bound to take the business to a next level
what is a front end service
Secure smart devices for temperature detection may help curb spread of pandemic viruses. Hopefully we will look into this matter.
Thanks for Sharing such a great article. thank you so much , huge fan of yours.
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Block chain could be a one of important application of iot.

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